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Wednesday, March 1st, 2006

Time:2:44 pm.
Mood: aggravated.
Unit 3

The Employees of Wild Turkey Plc.


Adhil and his fellow directors met at the registered office for another board meeting. Although they had conducted informal discussions previously, they now felt that the time had come to agree formally that there should be some ‘division of labour’ among the directors with particular directors undertaking responsibility for the management of specific aspects of the company’s business. After some discussion, it was agreed that Breena should focus his attention on management accounting and financial management because of his considerable ability in this area. Both Breena and Adhil thought it would be very sensible if Chuma focused his energies on sales and marketing effort of the company because he had recently gained a postgraduate degree in marketing from Kingston University having had previous experience in the marketing department of a large music publishing business. Both Breena and Chuma thought that Adhil should concentrate his time and talents on the artistic and creative aspects of the company’s business where it was agreed his principal talents were seen to reside. Adhil agreed, although he stressed the necessity for them all to work as ‘a team’ and avoid a situation where any director might become completely absorbed with his particular area of responsibility. After further discussion it gradually became clear that the directors would not be able to do all the work themselves that was needed to be done in order to get the business operational and that it would be essential to recruit salaried employees to work for the company as soon as possible. It was agreed that initially that five posts should be advertised on appropriate websites immediately with employment to commence, if possible, as soon as the company’s premises were ready for occupation.

The new posts

The posts to be created were as follows:

1. recording engineer
2. sound technician 1
3. sound technician 2
4. clerical administrator
5. receptionist

There was a good response to the job advertisements and the directors were soon able to appoint suitable persons to fill all of the above posts as follows:

1. recording engineer Peter Green
2. sound technician 1 Karen Baloo
3. sound technician 2 Wesley Jackson
4. clerical administrator Kim James
5. receptionist Zadie Petersen

Of course, there was going to be a time interval between these persons giving up their existing jobs and their being able to commence work for Wild Turkey Plc. This was not a great inconvenience because it enabled the directors to focus on completing the formalities associated with the acquisition of the company’s new premises. When Peter Green and Karen Baloo reported for work they were a great help to Adhil in deciding the layout of the sound studios and with the equipment specification that had to be compiled before orders would be placed with equipment suppliers. As the other employees commenced their employment with the company Adhil realised that all these employees should have the necessary documentation required by law even though the terms of their employment has been settled at the interview stage. At this stage, Breena had passed on the salary details of each employee to Enzo (the company secretary) who was busy with the creation of the company computerised accounting system and its computerised payroll application. Adhil and Breena both came to the realisation that it was time for another visit to Shah & Co. Adhil arranged to see Rita at her firm’s offices the very next day, after lunch.

Meeting at the offices of Shah & Co.

Adhil introduced his fellow director, Breena, to Rita. Adhil then indicated that a number of salaried staff has been recruited recently by the company and that he and Breena were uncertain about the documentation that the company might be legally required to provide to its new employees. He gave Rita a list of the names of the new employees together with particulars of their job title, hours of work, and salary. Rita responded by saying that Employment Law had become quite a complex area in recent years and that they were wise to have sought legal advice on how to comply with what is now a huge volume of legislation. She said that the employment relationship itself was conceptualised as being a contractual one. In consequence, she indicated that the directors might wish to have issued on behalf of the company detailed contracts of employment covering every aspect of the employment relationship. Alternatively, she indicated that the directors could opt to issue what has become known as a statutory statement of particulars of employment. She stated that if the directors decided to take that route and wanted her to compile the statements, she would need more information about the employees and their jobs than had been so far provided by Adhil and Breena. Adhil and Breena looked at each other quickly and then turned to Rita. They stated that they would prefer to have this alternative type of document issued to the new employees but Adhil asked why it was referred to as the ‘statutory statement’ if the employment relationship was contractual.

Rita explained that it was so called because it is issued to comply with the legislation enacted by the Westminster Parliament known as the Employment Rights Act 1996. She indicated that s. 1 (section 1) of the Act requires employers to issue a statement containing the important terms of the contract of employment so that it is clear to every employee what his/her rights and entitlements are quite soon after the commencement of their employment. She stated that the content of the statement is specified by the Act although it might be that some of the item headings would indicate that there was no contractual entitlement. Rita quickly referred to the computer screen on her desk and clicked the mouse a few times and a few pages of A4 rolled off the desktop printer. “There you are” she said; “this is a proforma and you can fill in the information under the various headings as they are applicable”. She said “if a particular heading is not applicable, you can simply state that to be the case”.

Content of the Statutory Statement

The headings were as follows:
a) the names of the employer and the employee;
b) the date when the employment (and the period of continuous employment) began;
c) the remuneration and the intervals at which it is to be paid;
d) the hours of work;
e) the holiday entitlement;
f) the entitlement to sick leave, including any entitlement to sick pay;
g) pensions and pension schemes;
h) the entitlement of employer and employee to notice of termination;
i) job title or a brief job description;
j) if the post is not permanent, the period for which the employment is expected to continue, or if it is for a fixed term, the date when employment is to end.
k) either the place of work or, if the employee is required or allowed to work in more than one location, an indication of this and of the employer’s address; and
l) the details of the existence of any relevant collective agreements (between the employer and a trade union) which directly affect the terms and conditions of the employee's employment - including, where the employer is not a party to an agreement, the persons by whom they were made.

The above statement must also include a note giving certain details of the employer’s disciplinary and grievance procedures, and stating whether or not a pensions contracting-out certificate is in force for the employment in question. If an employee is normally employed in the UK but will be required to work abroad for the same employer for a period of more than one month, the statement must also cover:

i. the period for which the employment abroad is to last;
ii. the currency in which the employee is to be paid;
iii. any additional pay or benefits; and
iv. the terms relating to the employee’s return to the UK.

Rita stated that all employees are entitled to receive such a written statement meeting the requirements described above, provided that their employment lasts for a month or longer. If one of the above is not applicable (for example l), it will be sufficient to state that this is inapplicable.

Itemised pay statement

Rita went on to point out that the majority employees have a right under the Employment Rights Act 1996 to receive individually from their employers a detailed pay statement at or before the time of payment. Every pay statement must give the following particulars:

• the gross amount of the wages or salary;
• the amounts of any fixed deductions and the purposes for which they are made (for example, trade union subscriptions, or the total figure for fixed deductions, when a separate standing statement of the details has been provided (see below);
• the amounts of any variable deductions and the purposes for which they are made;
• the net amount of any wages or salary payable;
• the amount and method of each part-payment when different parts of the net amount are paid in different ways, for example the separate figures of a cash payment and a balance credited to a bank account.

Rita indicated that there are, in fact, two types of pay statement and an employer may choose to give either:

(a) a pay statement which specifies the amounts and purposes of every fixed deduction separately; or
(b) a pay statement which specifies only the aggregate amount of all fixed deductions without any explanation of their purpose.

If an employer chooses the latter, the employer must give the employee a standing statement of fixed deductions at or before the time when the pay statement is issued.
When a standing statement of fixed deductions is used it must:

• be in writing.
• state for each item deducted:
o the amount;
o the intervals at which the deduction is made;
o the purpose or description, (e.g. trade union subscription).
• be given to the employee at or before the time of issuing any pay statement which quotes the total figure of fixed deductions.
• re-issued at intervals no longer than 12 months, incorporating any amendments.

Working Hours

Adhil mentioned to Rita that when the employees who would be working in the recordings studios were interviewed it was made clear to them that working times had to be flexible because of the nature of the work. Some days of the week there might be very little work to do but on other days it might be necessary to work into the night to lay down the tracks for a new album. Adhil looked at Rita and said that he hoped that the company as the employer would not be contravening any regulations concerning working time. Rita said that there was a set of regulations known as the Working Time Regulations 1998 that had been made by the UK government to implement a European Directive on working hours. These Regulations were designed to ensure that the health and safety of workers was not compromised by the working of excessively long hours. She said that the aim of the Regulations was to set a limit of 48 on the average amount of time worked in a week. However, she pointed out that an employer could obtain an employee’s agreement to work for longer than this maximum and that, provided Adhil obtained an employee’s agreement in writing, the company would not be infringing the Regulations.

Health and Safety

Rita stated that all employers (whether an individual or organisation) have a statutory duty under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 s. 2 to take reasonable precautions to protect the health, safety and welfare of their employees, and other people who might be affected by what they do. She indicated that employees too have obligations under s. 7
(a) to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and for that of other likely to adversely affected by their acts/omissions,
(b) to cooperate with the employers to enable the employer to carry the legal responsibilities imposed.

There is a website http://www.hse.gov.uk/smallbusinesses/must.htm for the Health and Safety Executive. It has wide powers to enter and investigate workplaces (including building sites) and to bring prosecutions if this is thought to be necessary. More often than not, however, inspectors issue ‘improvement notices’ under s. 21 requiring some contravention to be corrected within specified time limits but compliance may be subsequently enforced by a prosecution if no action is taken. Adhil and Chuma said they would check the website and then thanked Rita for her time. Rita said “I am pleased to have been of assistance but I will be sending you my firm’s bill in due course.

Adhil at the Gym

Adhil felt quite overwhelmed by the amount of regulation and compliance and decided he would take some time off and go to his health and fitness club to ‘work out’. He was doing some work on the weights and who should walk but Deena, the legal executive employed by Shah & Co LLP. They recognised each other immediately and Adhil smiled and said that he had spent rather a long session with her boss. Deena said that she supposed that there were many matters to attend to when establishing a new business. Adhil said to her that there certainly were. He added, however, that he did not understand how it was that European Law could impact on British business in the area of employment. Deena said it was really quite simple. The UK has been a member of the EU since 1973 except then it was known as the European Economic Community. As a Member State and signatory of the Treaties it has a legal obligation to comply with EU Law. She said that many Directives were passed at the European level and that these had to be implemented in the national law of the various Member States. In the UK, sometimes they are implemented by means of primary legislation (Act of Parliament) but more often they were implemented by means of subordinate legislation (Statutory Instrument). Most Directives dealing with employment are implemented by means of Statutory Instrument made under a general authority conferred by the Westminster Parliament under the European Communities Act 1972. Deena then said that although a great deal of Employment Law is European in origin, there is still a considerable amount that is enacted by the Parliament as a result of Bills being introduced by the government.

Tasks for you to complete:

Visit the website www.dti.gov.uk/er/ and the website www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/legislation/uk.htm to answer the following questions:

1. When must the written statement be given?
2. What must the note of disciplinary and grievance procedures in the statutory statement contain?
3. Which of the required particulars may be given by reference to some other document, rather than in the written statement itself?
4. What notification is an employee entitled to receive when a change occurs in one of the particulars of employment?
5. What information is an employee entitled to receive when there is a change of employer?
6. How can an employee enforce the rights described above?
7. How can a contractual employment dispute be resolved?
8. How is a reference or complaint made to an employment tribunal?
9. After referring to the HMSO website and looking up the Employment Rights Act 1996 what section of the Act stipulates that an employee is entitled to an itemised pay statement?
10. There is a right not to suffer unauthorised deductions from pay. Which section deals with that and what is the extent of the right?

Visit the Health and Safety Executive website and discover the ten then that every new business should do to comply with the health and safety requirements.

Visit http://www.parliament.uk/directories/educationunit.cfm#enquiries and click on ‘Making a Law’. After reading the content, explain the difference between primary and subordinate legislation.

Can you discover an Act of Parliament that was enacted to implement a European Directive? Can you name a piece of subordinate legislation that has been made to implement a European Directive on some aspect of employment other than the one on working time?

Recommended Reading:

Adams, A. (2003) Law for Business Students (Harlow: Logman) pp 259 – 272

Keenan, D. & Riches, S. (2005) Business Law (Harlow: Longman) pp 488 – 515 pp 532 – 535
Comments: Add Your Own.

Thursday, February 2nd, 2006

Subject:Applause store
Time:5:48 pm.

We occasionally have various employment vacancies within the Applause Store Group of Companies and encourage anyone interested in possibly getting into the film & television industry.

If you've got loads of determination, flair, originality, persistence and think you've got what it takes to be part of our dynamic team, simply drop a CV in the post to:

Atten: Recruitment Manager
Applause Store Productions Ltd,
Elstree Film & Television Studios,
Shenley Road,
Hertfordshire WD6 1JG

We cannot accept CV's via fax or email.

Copyright© 2005 Applause Store Productions Ltd
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Monday, August 15th, 2005

Time:10:22 pm.
Mood: but scared.
Im back!!!

Yes i have been to Alicante, Spain. It was so nice/cool/awesome there...but like Anureejh you would have seriously hated it there..it was like 35 degrees. I got tanned. and stuff. Nina looks tamil (sp) she said. she looks ok i think =\.

FUCK only 3 days left to live. i'm shit scared. Uni is just =s. i'm dead and messed up. I have no idea what the hay i'm gonna do about it. My results are just gonna depress me. OK well not depress, but i dont really know what to expect.

Well i was just wondering, if u guys were free wednesday, i'll text u, in case u dont read this.

BUt yeah, well if its at all pleasing i have a huge major hidious (sp) heat rash on my face which looks absolutely revolting. When anyone sees it they're like 'woah what the hell happend?', or they dont say anything to be nice. Then i just scream and say 'YES, its fucking heat rash ok, yes it looks hidious (sp) but well im praying t'wil go away =('

ah well. life goes on.

So yeah if u guys are free holla back, and stuff i'll text u guys fo sure.

itu didi x
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Friday, August 5th, 2005

Time:11:51 pm.
Mood: but on a roll!.
Well this is mighty fun
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Sunday, July 31st, 2005

Time:10:56 pm.
Mood: gloomy.
well today was just a glorious day..cleaned my room...all of it..moving into the attic is way stressful..its weird u go through like everything and u never realise u have so much stuff..and u sorting it out and ur like..why do i have so much stuff anyways?

i have a stressball in my hand right nw..its pretty fun u know..just playing with it.

yeah just relieves stress.

Comments: Add Your Own.

Monday, July 25th, 2005

Time:11:32 pm.
Mood: anddd dusty.
well well well, today was highly um interesting been pretty bored..then Naveen sed wanna go out thought ok cooliO! (Y) went uxbridge and saw Jessel, Veej and the oh so famous Sheena..she is fit just not like WOW fit like everyone keeps saying..her face is kinda scary..but her body is oo la la..it was kinda awkward..thenn we just walked around went shopping. .e.t.c

My birthday:
It was a rather extra-ordinary day, i suppose not really in a good way. Dont get me wrong i did enjoy myself just i duno i have to say that i've had better birthdays. But i think that birthday did me more bad then good. However, i did grow up sounds rather strange i know however i really grew up. And i've learnt to accept the way things are. Things happen for a reason and thats that!

well i am officially 18 and it feels pretty damn good if i dont say so myself

thank you kavita and dont worry anureejh i understand like that u couldnt come and stuff =) thank you both of you so much. u guys really made me the last 2 years. sounds odd i know. but just really thank you so much :)
Gary thankk youu tooo u've really helped me tooo you guyss mannnn where would i be with out thee..! *high-five*
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Wednesday, July 20th, 2005

Time:12:41 am.
Mood:hmmm =/.

Life isnt all haa haa hee hee

sometimes it sucks too...*larfs* yeah *chokes*. Why does it feel like when you least expect it your life closes in on you . Like all conjunctavitus-fied..dont you sometimes wish that as you cry your tears could be like slow-motion-fied and fall to the floor and be swallowed up. Bad day - the song i mean; i mean i love it as much as any person does however do we really need to be outlined that we had a bad day? Yes we know its just a bad day but sometimes we like dwelling in out shit and pretending like its the worst thing in the world. How does it feel? Well honestly it feels shit; you know i wish i had a calender outlining the shit days in my life so i could prepare. Oh and i realised the side effects of feeling a little crappy - *AHEM* you like are likely to feel EVEN CRAPPIER over the next few minutes. Took me a whole 17 years and 360 days to work out. Did you know i actually had to work that out [my age thingy]. God i'm such a LMAO. Yeah. *slaps one self* .. yeah didnt work .. stop trying to make me feel better..maaaaaaaybe i like drowning in my shit. ok so just just back off.

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Friday, July 15th, 2005

Time:11:44 pm.
Mood: it means ?.
'sup my bredbins..hope thou have been u no like ok?!

hmmm..i cannot believe that i feel ill agen..why me huh?? why!?

thats it reallly

oh i saw war of the worlds too..its rather cool...BUT fucking scary i swear i thought i was gonna shit myself =|

gonna get a drink!
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Wednesday, July 13th, 2005

Time:12:03 am.
Mood: what does it meann?.
fuck sake

i have a head ache >< =( i need a hug; i seriously hate being ill like so much..and sore throats they just suck x like 34978234928374.

well absolutely nothing is happening herere..bored as fuck..but cant go out because i feel so shity < i hate that word =|

today there was a bomb scare at westway..andd i duno why but it hurt that like no one called me to like see if i was ok..ok ok ok i knw like not many people knew about it..but like i find it kind of ironic i dddddduunoo9..
i shut up?!
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Friday, July 8th, 2005

Time:12:53 am.
Mood: + insecure.
i just wanna say..that well i just feel totally insecure and paranoid now about the whole london bombing..its made me think twice about every move i make and every move my friends or family take..i woke up this morning at like 12..relaxed e.t.c. and well to see the news on the tv this morning..and everything that was going on..i felt like i missed out on something so important..it annoyed me so much .. blah i feel sickened....seriously

and i really hope and pray that nothing more comes from this..

also i like any person just wanna say that my love is with the people that have lost their lives today..and of course with the friends and families of the people who have lost someone today..

hopefully we can try and live in some kind of sanity..one day..x
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Wednesday, July 6th, 2005

Time:11:35 pm.
Mood: confused.
why didnt u deny it u oaf?

i mean just cos i know..doesnt mean u cant like reasure me?!


you just make me speechless
Comments: Add Your Own.

Thursday, June 23rd, 2005

Subject:Tennis my dearly beloved
Time:11:36 pm.
Mood: + turned on!! BAD COMBO.
i am bloody tennis obsessed i swear

i think of tennis 24/7
i dream of tennis
Tennis is in my veins

i want to play NOW

anddd i want Roddick to win =| , hes just such a good player; his physique, his skill and his technique jusst soo overpowering.. i LOVE this guy..hes soo damn good !! =)

I SWEAR if he doesnt i will do something damnnn drastic =/

nadal =(
henman =/ dnt cry next year =) (Y)

andd sharapova u nooo ur gna do it this year soooo stop being a cock(y) sexy biaatchh and just playy and and and lift ur skirt up higher =)

andd andrew murray woww x 5 at 18 and hes doing so damn well!! GO YOU *click click* - thiiss guy iss like beating professionals =o !!

Venus twisted her ankle =s
Serena well ur coolio for now but i duno .. just too much effort it seems .. BUT good player woooo

ferrer goood BUT cant u just damn well gain a little bit of respect and STOP swearing =|

ok.. i will stop before i name all the players here.. i just realised what i was doing =| SORRY

yeaaaaaah uh uh uh uh

TURN ME ON dammit
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Sunday, June 12th, 2005

Time:2:33 am.
Mood: in pain.
why is it so hard to express how i feel to the people i love the most?

she says i'll be alright..but why is it this time..shes not reassuring me and agreeing with her?

nothing seems right any more

everythings just muffled and unclear..i cant see where i'm going and what i'm doing?

most of all who i am hurting..this isnt fair..

who will i talk to?
who will understand me?

i miss tayeba..i really do..but i hated the way every time i came into her room i wanted to cry..and tell her how i felt


o shut up

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Thursday, June 9th, 2005

Time:1:32 am.
Mood: scared.
why do i feel weird inside ?! :\

i am unsure..

maybe exams =\

i duno

i just want everything and everyone - APART from y'all to back off =s

dnt make me go please

my eyes pain

but i dnt care..

leave me be.. but in ur arms..forever and ever

if its wrong to love u..then my heart just wont let me be right

i'm scared please hold me tight..and dont let me go
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Tuesday, May 31st, 2005

Subject:the is my song
Time:12:58 am.
Mood: crushed.
Everytime we say goodbye i die a little

Everytime we say goodbye i wonder why a little

why the gods above me who must be in the know, think so little of me

they allow you to go, and when your near theres such an air of spring about it, i can hear

a lock somewhere, begin to sing about it, theres no love sung finer, but how strange the change from major

to minor, everytime we say goodbye..
Comments: Add Your Own.

Sunday, May 15th, 2005

Subject:mummy + daddy
Time:2:46 pm.
Mood: just sucks.


I would be more enthusiastic about it if i could, but the truth is i can't..my parents aren't talking..AGEN >< and it would be a normal charade if it wasn't on their anniversary..i mean after how many years i think its like 17 or 19 years this is the first time they havent spoken on the ACTUAL DAY of their anniversary..or if they aren't talking they usually make up, mum says sorry (why i do not know) but and carry on..but today they havent..they haven't said 'happy anniversary' to each other, or exchanged cards..which by the way they havent even written yet...and my dad hasnt kissed my mum on the cheek and hugged..and i haven't yet hoped (whilst watching them) that thats how my marriage would be..but more romanced =( its really getting me down..and i know i do have it better then some people..but i just wish my parents were happier together..i hate the way my dads always down on my mum for things that aren't her fault..like y day my mum went upstairs to talk to my dad and he just shouted at her..and well they shouted at each other..so nothing was resolved..i dont understand..i love my parents..but my dad he seriously annoys me when he pulls stunts like this..i feel like grabbing him and slapping him and saying 'go and fucking talk to your wife'..she tries so hard..and he being a male dumbass has too much pride (no offense to fathers who are nice)..to go up and apologise..

I was talking to my mum a few months ago..and well she was saying 'when you kids are all married and happy, i dunno what i'm gonna do; dad and i just have nothing in common' - it didnt hit me..but my mum she's only staying with my dad because of us..and because realistically shes not an independent person..she craves to be..but shes just not..and that really hurt..i wanted to cry..i sound ott..but i did...i mean my parents arent perfect..but i just can't imagine life if they split up..

i really just wish that they would make up and stop having these arguments..it really takes its toll on us - children..we see them not talking..and unincluding me for a bit..but i know nina gets down about it..so does priti..sonal and vishal too..they ignore it..but i know they see it..they're just too young to understand i suppose..we try to make their anniversary perfect..but you cant live in a fairytale when it comes down to it..it just isnt..reality..

i guess theres no point in living your life as thought everything will be hunky dory..because that just isnt life..

well..all thats left to say is..


for many years to come..i hope..

EDIT: its actually 22 years my mistake >
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Wednesday, May 11th, 2005

Time:9:05 pm.
Mood: hyper.
OMGOMGOMGOMGOMGOMGOMG x 34589359734593475093485385 kavita damnnnnnnnnnnnnn *drools* ... i seriously dunno wtf to sayy...apart from ... damnmnn baby i'd like a piece of that for meee .. u look soooooo fucking gorjus..*licks u*... i may be a tad obvious (mcfly) but oooo welll...like i give a shit what anyone [apart from y'all] think of me!!

<3 youuu..

hehehehe alll dayy me and anusqueegy waited for her and rajeevy to come back from zeh hairdressers..it was funny..she kept scaring me..cos we were watching Gothika..*hits head*..it was my idea to watch it as well...

BUT oh my god, as soon as she came into view, damnnnnnnnn...i dunno what to say...your hair looks AMAZING..and it so freeking suits you...wow...*fantasizes*


how the hell am i gonna deal with you noww?!? =s ..

ohh i'm sure i'll find a wayy!! =)

THANK YOU x 349827349238423940234 for the trousers/crops/jeans..they are soo MEGA nice..i REALLY <3 them..i'm gutted that my fugging hips wont just adjust for them =( .. ge dammit..

ah well

gonna go and try to fit AGEN..




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Friday, April 29th, 2005

Time:2:31 pm.
orrrr google - search for equal pay act
Comments: Add Your Own.

Wednesday, April 27th, 2005

Time:10:20 am.
Mood: rejected.
6.4 The sixth-form curriculum

Most schools have recently reviewed, and are continuing to review their sixth-form curriculum, and are conscious of the need to extend their provision to cater for the larger numbers and differing abilities of the students who are staying on. The subjects and courses offered in sixth forms are determined by several factors - continuity of teaching, the availability of staff, students' choice and the need to offer an appropriate range of subjects to meet their requirements. Most schools go to considerable trouble to accommodate students' requests.

Most sixth forms now provide GNVQ courses in addition to a range of GCE A levels, and usually a much smaller number of AS courses. Intermediate level GNVQ is offered most commonly for one-year students, with a somewhat smaller, but growing proportion of schools offering Advanced GNVQ. A few sixth forms, often in grammar schools, continue to concentrate just on GCE A levels, and a smaller number of schools, usually former secondary moderns, have set up new sixth forms providing only GNVQ courses.

The large majority of students in school sixth forms follow GCE A-level programmes of study. With the introduction of GNVQ courses, the proportion of students studying GCE A levels fell slightly from 91 per cent in 1993 to 86 per cent in 1996, but A levels form the basis of the post-16 curriculum in all but a few sixth forms. About 60 per cent offer some AS courses alongside A levels, but take-up has remained very modest, and few students take more than one AS course.

Entry numbers for most GCE A-level subjects remained fairly stable over the period 1993-97. Numbers for physics declined up to 1996, and then steadied in 1997, whilst those for biology increased, particularly in 1997. Numbers in English, the most popular A-level subject, also increased markedly in 1997. A substantial drop in entries for economics was largely offset by increases in business studies. Numbers in mathematics showed encouraging increases in 1996 and 1997 after falling throughout the early nineties. AS entries in total amounted to only 8 per cent of those for A level. Long-established gender patterns in choice of A-level subjects have persisted, with mathematics, physical sciences and economics predominantly studied by boys, and English and modern foreign languages by girls.

The quantity of work undertaken by A-level students can vary quite considerably. Although three A-level subjects is the norm, a small number of students successfully complete four; most commonly these are science students, often taking further mathematics as a fourth A level. Some students also combine an AS course with three A levels, and this often serves to broaden the range of their studies. In contrast, in most sixth forms there are some students who find three A levels too demanding, and drop down to two subjects by the second year of their course; the additional non-taught time thus created is often not used in as effective a way as it could be. The potential for extending the amount and variety of advanced level work undertaken by A-level students is illustrated by the small group of schools offering the International Baccalaureate in place of, or in addition to, GCE courses. Here, students successfully study what is broadly the equivalent of three A levels and three AS courses, in addition to other requirements for the International Baccalaureate Diploma.

The period 1993-97 has seen the progressive introduction of GNVQ courses into many schools, providing for the first time a realistic alternative, at Advanced level, to GCE A levels. Take-up of Advanced GNVQ has not been as great in school sixth forms as in FE colleges, but the proportion of sixth-form students taking these courses increased from 0.4 per cent in 1993 to 9 per cent in 1997. Business has been by far the most popular GNVQ vocational area, followed by Health and Social Care, Leisure and Tourism and Art and Design; very few schools offer GNVQ Engineering or Manufacturing, partly because of their resourcing demands.

The introduction of GNVQ has transformed the provision for those students who choose to stay on in the sixth form for one year to improve on their GCSE performance. Most schools have now dropped their one-year GCSE resit courses, where students just repeated previously unsuccessful work, and which were largely ineffective in significantly raising attainment; it is usual now to provide resit facilities only in the core subjects of English and mathematics. The GCSE resit programmes have been largely replaced by GNVQ Intermediate courses which generally motivate students, enable them to be successful, and provide a more worthwhile educational experience than was previously available.

Most schools accept the importance for effective sixth-form education of providing a broad programme of "enrichment" studies, in addition to students' main A-level or GNVQ courses. Though very well intentioned, the range of this additional provision, and the time allocated for it, vary widely, and few schools have a clear rationale for defining the content provided. Programmes often include general studies, sports studies, courses on IT, personal and social education, modern foreign languages and drama, as well as activities suggested by the students themselves.

Many girls achieve very high standards in mathematics and science at GCSE but are still seriously under-represented in the sixth form in subjects which lead to careers in mathematics, science, engineering and technology. This has two effects: it narrows their opportunities for personal development, and it limits national resources in a crucial area for economic development. This is all the more disturbing given that girls achieve at least as well as boys in mathematics and the sciences at GCSE and that the minority of girls who study these subjects at A level perform well.

Strategies likely to promote greater take-up by girls of mathematics and science at A level include a review of the courses provided at Key Stage 4, the use of outside agencies to demonstrate the career opportunities and the applicability of these subjects, and the further development of relevant extra-curricular opportunities. Individual mentoring of pupils has also been found to be successful in similar fields in boosting girls' confidence about entering male dominated careers. Schools need to continue to improve careers-related initiatives to broaden pupils' thinking about subject options post-16, especially with regard to boosting the confidence of girls who have the potential to do well in science and technology.

There is an increased interest nationally in key skills being incorporated into the programmes of study of all students following post-16 courses. However, the wide agreement about their importance is not matched by a common view of precisely what is meant by key skills, what purpose they serve, and how they are to be taught, learned and assessed. This uncertainty, combined with what has been until very recently their relatively low status in schools, has resulted in their forming the least satisfactory part of the GNVQ programmes; in many cases they have been regarded as a somewhat irritating add-on extra to the main vocational work.

The number of GCE A-level subjects taught tends to depend on the size of sixth form, but can vary from as low as 5 up to more than 30. A minimum of 12 A-level subjects is needed if students are to be offered a reasonable choice, and most schools are able to provide this. Since GNVQ is a self-contained course, schools do not need to provide a large number of vocational areas, but more options do provide greater choice for students.

For a school deploying current levels of resourcing equitably between the sixth form and main school, a minimum of 80 students is needed to provide economically a basic curriculum of 12 A-level subjects. To provide, for example, 16 A levels, two Advanced and three Intermediate level GNVQ courses a school needs to recruit a total of 200 students. Where numbers in AS and A-level classes are small, schools are frequently able to operate more efficiently by combining Year 12 and Year 13 groups, for at least some of their lessons; there is no evidence that these arrangements have an adverse impact on examination results.

Some schools enhance their sixth-form curriculum provision through links with other institutions. The extent of such co-operative arrangements varies considerably. There are some integrated sixth-form consortia with joint planning and publicity, shared resources and timetables and jointly delivered programmes. An example is in Lowestoft, Suffolk, where three upper schools, in a compact geographical location, have co-ordinated timetables and students travel by consortium-operated buses to whichever school provides the subject they are taking. There are clear advantages to the schools, both in terms of breadth of curriculum and economies of scale. When the smallest of the three schools was visited in 1995, it would have required an extra six staff to have been allocated to the sixth form to provide the curriculum available to its students at that time, if the consortium had not been operating; for a school with a total staff of 42, this would have been quite impractical.

In other areas, co-operative arrangements are frequently on more of an ad-hoc basis, with another institution providing the teaching of a particular course for a small number of students in a school where teacher expertise is lacking or whose numbers do not merit timetabling the course in the school.

Although these link arrangements are not without their difficulties, when they work well students benefit considerably from the greater choice of courses and diverse experience which institutions working together can offer. Such arrangements have recently become more problematic, and in some cases have ceased because of the increased competition between schools themselves and between schools and colleges.

6.5 The whole curriculum: spiritual, moral, social and cultural development

The contribution of National Curriculum subjects to pupils' spiritual, moral, social and cultural development in schools is usually ad hoc. However, in some schools attempts have been made to draw out the threads in order to evaluate the strength of provision and make it more explicit.
The senior management team at Heathland School, Hounslow, identified SMSC as an area for development in advance of their OFSTED inspection. To this end, they agreed that a post of responsibility would be given to a member of staff to investigate and develop this area. There followed a comprehensive curriculum mapping exercise, accompanied by a survey of all staff from the perspectives of teacher and tutor. Additionally a questionnaire was sent to parents, and other members of the local community were interviewed to gain perceptions of the school's ethos. The mapping exercise revealed that a great deal was already being done, both explicitly and implicitly. In Year 8 drama, for example, pupils' moral development is promoted by consideration of moral dilemmas, examining the rights of the individual versus those of the community, considering the concepts of good and evil, power and revenge. As a result of the mapping exercise a number of recommendations were made, including that each department should have a statement on SMSC and that the subject contribution should be explicit in the schemes of work. Since then there have been several important departmental initiatives. For example, the mathematics department has begun to use approaches and tasks from a commercially produced Key Stage 4 scheme; during the course, explicit links were made between tessellations and Islamic art and design work and data were used which drew upon topics from areas with social and cultural links. The department is now designing its own materials for Key Stage 3 based on these principles. In English, Year 9 pupils studying "The Merchant of Venice" deepened their understanding of prejudice through an analysis of Shakespeare's portrayal of Shylock and his relationships with his Christian neighbours, understanding the need to look carefully at the positive and negative aspects of a person's character rather than make a judgement on the basis of superficial knowledge. The scheme of work for geography incorporates explicit reference to moral issues. For example, when studying flooding in Bangladesh, pupils consider moral issues related to deforestation, international aid and corruption. Particularly significant is the fact that subjects' contribution to SMSC is continually monitored by the member of staff responsible. Interviews with heads of department identify progress made and look at plans for making SMSC more explicit. The explicit nature of SMSC elements is seen as particularly important: implicit messages may be obvious to teachers, they are not necessarily so to pupils.

HMI inspection, 1997
Where subject departments give due thought to their contribution to SMSC, and emphasise it in schemes of work and in planning, this supports pupils' development and enriches the subject. Rarely, however, is this a consistent position across a school.

Effective schools provide their pupils with knowledge and insight into values and religious beliefs and enable them to reflect on experiences in a way which develops their self-knowledge and spiritual awareness. The main responsibility for spiritual development in the curriculum naturally rests with the teaching of RE, but other subjects can also promote spiritual development. In art, for example, where teachers are able to set tasks which call on pupils to express emotion and reflect on abstract concepts, the results can say much about the unspoken spiritual nature of art. In one school, a sixth-form student had made abstract paintings about his family's experience of the Holocaust in an unmistakeable demonstration of the capacity of painting to show feelings. English teaching can also make a significant contribution to spiritual development.
At Broughton High School, Liverpool, the English department regularly uses opportunities to explore the nature of spirituality through language and imagery. For example, in a Year 10 class studying "Twelfth Night", pupils explored the notion that the Duke was in love with Cesario's 'spirit'. The concept of 'spirit' and the range of meanings of 'love' were discussed by the class. Pupils concluded that qualities such as loyalty and love describe our spiritual nature and give individuals their unique character.

HMI inspection, 1997
Although most schools have difficulty with the idea of spiritual development that is not directly associated with religion, the effect of good practice of the kind described above can be seen at St Michael's School, Southwark.

Pupils' spiritual development is excellent. Religious education, inspected separately under Section 23, is planned to enable pupils to examine the Roman Catholic faith, the progress of Christianity and note the variety of faiths which help people develop a reasoned set of values, attitudes and beliefs. Other subjects make suitable reference to and contribute to pupils' spiritual growth. For instance, in history, pupils discover the significance of persecution in reinforcing people's faith. In English, poetry provides an opportunity for spiritual reflection. Spiritual awareness is reinforced during listening to music and from time to time in the performance and composition of pupils' own pieces. OFSTED inspection report, 1997

In sixth forms, with the exception of denominational schools, there is generally little formal provision for spiritual development. Some general studies courses include modules on religious issues, but otherwise, unless they are in church schools, the large majority of sixth-form students have no religious education within their programmes. Many students have strong beliefs or views about religion, but these are largely sustained by their experience out of school.

Where schools are making good provision for pupils' moral development across the curriculum, teaching strategies successfully emphasise school values. Perhaps most important of all, teachers and other adults effectively promote moral principles through their interaction with pupils and each other. For example, in PE and games, teachers provide good role models and successfully encourage a sense of fair play. RE makes an important contribution to pupils' moral development by teaching principles which distinguish right from wrong, and developing rational thinking. For example, in examination classes, in particular, a wide range of personal, social and ethical concepts are explored in depth and pupils are challenged to reflect on their own values and principles. In other subjects, too, moral development is supported where pupils are encouraged to think for themselves and to discuss a range of moral issues.

Geography lessons in many schools involve pupils in discussing population, settlement and environmental issues relating to equity, compromise, fairness and tolerance. Some science lessons include planned opportunities to discuss moral issues arising from their work, such as genetic engineering, nuclear power, AIDS and drug abuse. In history lessons pupils are encouraged to discuss issues such as war and conflict, prejudice, and rich and poor. In sixth forms, moral issues are often addressed through general studies and other enrichment activities, as well as sometimes within students' main studies. In art, for example, a GNVQ graphic design brief required a powerful symbol for a victim support agency; students had discussed and researched at length the feelings and attitudes of victims of crime as part of their preparation for this task.

The extent to which pupils and students are encouraged to think about moral issues varies considerably between, and sometimes within, schools. A dilemma for schools and individual teachers is the degree to which moral issues should be dealt with in a 'value free' way, in particular in order to avoid any danger of indoctrination. The danger of this is that opportunities for exploring moral issues are sometimes lost. As noted in HMCI's Annual Report for 1993/4, even in schools which have strong policy documents and high levels of awareness, 'more often than not moral issues appear to be ignored, ducked or else explored in a "value neutral" manner. It is clear that for many pupils, the one opportunity to hear the views of a significant adult on an important issue of the day - not least those pressing on their lives - is often missed'.

Where the provision of opportunities for social development is good, schools provide many opportunities for pupils to develop their inter-personal skills across subjects. These include, for example, paired and group work used to develop collaborative skills, sharing ideas and equipment and participation in team games. Explicit attention to pupils' personal development is usually found in Personal and Social Education lessons or tutorials (see below, section 7.15)

In most schools, however, more thought could be given to strategies for the development of pupils' social awareness through the subjects of the curriculum. For example, it is assumed that pupils know how to work co-operatively in pairs and small groups; often this is not the case, and mixed groups quickly resort to gender stereotypes, particularly where computers are involved. Insufficient attention has generally been paid by schools to analysis of pupils' behaviour to identify successful and unsuccessful forms of grouping, organisation and activity. In a significant number of lessons pupils are allowed to sit where they choose, and as a result behaviour patterns are based around the friendship groups of the pupils; sometimes this can conflict with the purpose of the lesson.

Around a half of secondary schools make good provision for pupils' cultural development, as at Helston School, Cornwall.

Cultural development is a major strength of the school. Pupils are provided with very good opportunities to follow an area of personal interest in a range of music, sporting and other clubs and societies. Awareness of local traditions is high. Personal writing in English researches family background and shows respect for local life and tradition and the Celtic dimension is celebrated in some religious education work and in music, where Cornish Christmas carols are sung. Pupils are made aware that they are part of a much wider community through some multicultural work and through the culturally diverse novels and poetry which form the GCSE English syllabus. There are trips and visits to further pupils' cultural awareness, and their involvement with the local community through art and musical performances is very strong. OFSTED inspection report, 1997

RE generally makes an important contribution to pupils' cultural development by teaching about Christianity and its influence on British culture and about the world's major faiths, so giving pupils some insight into a range of cultures. Well chosen syllabuses take into account the range of cultural diversity in the school and the scheme of work includes units which make pupils aware of the richness of cultural diversity in Britain. Where schools take cultural development seriously, a range of lessons include the use of paintings, pottery, music, literature, poetry, architecture and costume to develop pupils' cultural awareness and appreciation. Often RE rooms also contain artefacts which provide pupils with tangible contact with a range of religions.

Art provides many opportunities for cultural development through contact with the work of artists in the form of reproductions, books and videos. Displays of "live" art are important, as when one school set out some superb ceramic pieces and allowed pupils to touch and explore the work. Art plays an ever-increasing role in developing awareness of cultural diversity through, for instance, the use of Asian styles of stitchery, learned by pupils at home from their mothers and grandmothers and used in a GCSE textiles project. Where schools employ artists-in-residence, a clear agenda set out at the start of the placement is invaluable in making the best use of this potentially powerful resource for cultural development. This has become a regular and important feature of art in secondary schools. Other subjects can also make valuable contributions to pupils' cultural education, although often this dimension of the work is insufficiently explicit.

Some schools offer opportunities for cultural development to some pupils but not to all. In sixth forms, for example, the level of involvement and range of experience of cultural activity is highly dependent on the particular A-level or GNVQ courses chosen. Increasing opportunities for sixth-form students to travel abroad as part of their studies, including for example, GNVQ units in business or leisure and tourism in Europe, allow them to experience cultures other than their own.

Some schools fail to reach a sensible balance in the development of pupils' understanding of the cultural traditions of the United Kingdom, of modern multicultural Britain, and of other European and world cultures (see also pages 60-61). At Shelley High School, Huddersfield, a school with predominantly white pupils in an area with significant ethnic minority communities, provision for cultural development is well balanced and specific opportunities are exploited to the benefit of all pupils.

The school gives some consideration to an appreciation of the pupils' own cultural traditions through, for example, the study of history and geography and the choice of fiction in English. Their own musical and dramatic culture is celebrated and is recognised by the school community in the extended annual school assembly. They also pay frequent visits to galleries, concerts and theatres and the school environment itself is rich in display. There is a programme of exchange visits and educational field study activities in mainland Europe as well as a variety of work placements in the community and further afield. The link with Tanzania is a unique feature of the school and one that is valued by those pupils who are able to participate. At any one time a number of ex-students are spending time on voluntary service in Tanzania. This link, especially at times when Tanzanians visit the school, permeates the life of the school and successfully raises the multi-cultural awareness of pupils. This is consolidated by the subject material often chosen for devised drama productions, which have also been toured to other communities, including the Royal National Theatre. Similarly, in English effective use is made of literature from black and non-European writers. OFSTED inspection report, 1997

Teamworking in real life business

A TEAM-BASED programme for building businesses has received top marks from participants in its initial two pilot programmes. Primed! is a joint initiative between business growth consultancy Ignition Partner and Waikato Management School. It is the first programme of its kind in New Zealand, offering a team-based approach and mentoring to kick-start commercialisation of new products and services. The 14-week programme is led by Ignition Partner directors Chad Wilkie and John Cunningham, both experienced business advisers, and managed by Waikato Management School’s Enterprise and Innovation Manager Merran Davis-Havill. “We expect five or six really exciting businesses to go to market in the next six months,” says Primed! leader Chad Wilkie. “More than half of the participants are on the verge of going into business.” Some people come into the programme with their group already established and a business idea under development. Others would like to establish a business but don’t have a clear idea business idea. The programme helps individuals form teams with complementary skill bases. “Most programmes educate people individually or create teams in a static environment,” Chad Wilkie says. “We are creating teams in a new environment where innovation and teamwork are happening together.” That process adds complexity to the programme leaders’ roles. “We need to think through the shape of each team and differentiate leadership from the skill base.” Participants are drawn from a wide range of backgrounds, including Crown Research Institute staff commercialising research, students aiming to step directly into their own business, business people developing new ventures, and individuals keen to establish a business without a specific business idea. “Primed! has changed our mindset from conceptual to practical,” says Ilse Wolfe, whose student team is introducing a call centre-based business to New Zealand. “Without this, it would still be an idea. Now, we expect to be in business next year.” Amita Chand and her husband are well advanced in establishing a horticultural business. They have engineering and science backgrounds and the business skills they’ve gained from Primed! have been invaluable, she says. “We needed the discipline to put a business plan together and it’s definitely given us that. And Chad and John’s real life experience is very useful – they’ve helped us think through issues we weren’t even aware of.” Scientist Alison Forster is part of a team working towards a Management Buy Out of a Forest Research business. “This programme has been exceptionally worthwhile,” she says. “We haven’t had any business experience and working through this process has facilitated the MBO process and means we will be able to hit the ground running.” One of the most significant changes among many Primed! participants is a shift in mindset and vocabulary from a product to a business vocabulary, says Chad Wilkie. “That is what is required from the marketplace. Once people get a common language and some frameworks, they often make much faster progress.” In addition, says John Cunningham, it’s important that each team is action-based. “The most difficult thing in business is getting things done. So the programme is structured to establish the teams early on then help them move forward.” During the 14-week programme teams gain skills in business and strategic planning, product development, manufacturing, marketing, human resources, intellectual property, finance and venture capital. They also receive help to develop their business plans. After the programme, those teams that choose to go into business receive support to set up their businesses and pitch for capital, or entry to a strategic alliance or incubator. Working in teams to develop businesses is not a widespread New Zealand trait, says Merran Davis-Havill. But it’s an important step in helping the country establish a culture of successful innovation. A further two Primed! programmes will be run in 2005. The first will be held in Tauranga, starting in March. Individuals and groups will be selected for Primed! based on their potential for success. Primed! is funded by New Zealand Trade and Enterprise (NZTE) from its Enterprise Culture and Skills Activities Fund. Applications are available from Waikato Management School. THIS ISSUE Lead NZ News NZ Politics World News Features
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Subject:she sed
Time:12:15 am.
Mood: TUMMMYYY! >.
tummy aches = evil, no shit motherfucker =(

Oh yesh + i went to gloucestershire uni today at cheltenham .. it was WOW POW!! ><

tummy pains >< oh these arent women ones..which i prefer right now :@


grabbles is a funny word
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